Education is a limited edition
Whereas knowledge is eternal and infinity.
I have passionately commemorated the journey of science and engineering for the past seven years, and in this due course, I could comprehend a lot of stuffs. Still, one thing has been unfailingly inciting me that knowledge is the supreme of everything. Numerous illustrations have ascertained me the magnitude of expertise. Awfully while wobbling through the aisles of Kalam, Einstein, Ramanujam, James Huron, Darwin,
None of them had education from the top University but demonstrated their metal to the planet. Never-ending endurance and devotion have solidified themselves as the missionaries in their domain. Education just lays down the path for vitality and dedication towards accomplishing the goal.
With the constant surge in global population, the demand for freshwater has also increased exponentially. In fact, freshwater is an inevitable component of sustaining life forms in the face of the earth, and over the years, it has constantly diminished and deteriorated to levels never seen before. Under the given circumstances, freshwater assessment in terms of its quantity and quality is crucial for efficient water management. Despite recent advances in freshwater assessment technology, they are still reliant on sophisticated field instruments which often incurs installation and maintenance expenditures. In an effort to overcome these drawbacks, in the present work, we present the promising aspects of geospatial technology for precise assessment of surface water.
In recent years, it is observed that there have been tremendous technological advancements in satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). Different space agencies have launched several satellites for observing, monitoring and detecting the dynamic changes on earth. In this work, we are analyzing the satellite imageries obtained from Sentinel-1 launched by ESA (European Space Agency). The Sentinel-1 satellite has the capability to capture surficial changes on earth with different wavelengths such as optical (sentinel-1B) and microwave wavelengths (Sentinel-1A). Apart from these, in this work, we will be assessing the quality of surface water using the different band spectrum of the sentinel-2 series satellites. Upon using various bands and band math combinations of sentinel-2 series satellites, we determine the maximum chlorophyll index (MCI), Green normalized difference index (GNDVI), Normalized difference turbidity Index (NDTI), chlorophyll-a Concentration, surface water temperature, the salinity of the water, total dissolved solvents and pH scale of the surface water. The determination of the above-mentioned quality parameters will further enable us to decide the corresponding usage purpose for the available water.
The Sentinel-1A satellite works with a RADAR technology known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar which senses the topographic changes in Sub-millimeter level. The Corner reflectors are used to obtain an accurate and high precision measurement of the displacement values. The Corner reflectors significantly reduce the effect of distributed scattering and simultaneously increases the strength of retracting radar signals by convergence. Further, Corner reflectors are also used to reduce the error factors induced by the atmosphere reflections, refractions, vegetation covers, wavy nature of the water bodies and other factors. Once these signals form the Corner reflectors are sensed by the satellite sensors and received in the form of imageries, we will be able to determine surficial displacement or the absolute changes in the height of the Corner reflectors. Further, by allowing the Corner reflectors to float in water bodies, it will enable us to determine the changes in the height of water level. An algorithm will be developed which will automate the process of acquiring the satellite imagery by using API, pre and post-processing of the imagery, and developing the results for the specific locations (location of the Corner reflectors). Once this automation is successfully implemented, a single dashboard system will be developed for the area of interest. The very purpose of developing a single dashboard system is to provide the right information for the decision-makers during the disastrous event like flooding, storm and cyclone. Further on a positive way having real-time information on water quantity and quality for the Dams, it will help in determine the pre and post-monsoon pattern and carry out successful agriculture activities in the fore coming years.
Continuous and systematic monitoring of water quality and quantity using Geospatial technology
New semi-supervised classifier model is developed for monitoring the small reservoirs where the model starts to delineate the boundary of the reservoirs. The classifier emerges as the best model for reducing the confusion matrix error between the land and water body pixels for the study region. The model was considered for the analysis as they are much efficient and suitable for automated water boundary extraction. In addition to this, the study considered the potential of SAR datasets for determining water bodies irrespective of the weather conditions in the region. The study especially focused on the monitoring of the small and moderate level water bodies in the region as they have direct link and contribution to the livelihoods in the rural semi-arid region of West Africa. In order to monitor such water bodies, we need to understand and decipher the water level fluctuations. The application of small reservoir monitoring becomes a promising technique while harnessing the potential of SAR datasets as they operate irrespective of the atmospheric conditions and are totally independent of the wavelength properties. However, there are minor errors induced because of the of the wind-induced Bragg scattering and low contrast developed between the water and dried out soil in the region. In order to evaluate these minor issues, we need to implement a highly efficient model similar to quasi manual methods. The aim of the research work was to develop a robust delineation algorithm for continuous monitoring of the water bodies by eradicating the earlier mentioned wavelength errors and atmospheric disturbances. Results indicated that the algorithm developed was capable of reducing errors induced by the atmosphere and soil moisture in the region.
Monitoring the quantity of water bodies using Radarsat-2
In the present study, an attempt has been made to holistically study the Shanmukha Nadi Basin, a semi-arid basin located in the Dindugal district, western Tamil Nadu. Being located in the semi-arid region the basin suffers various environmental problems like excess surface runoff, soil erosion and groundwater deterioration, etc. Hence to bring out the current environmental status of the basin an integrated study was carried out using remote sensing and GIS. Using the latest advanced techniques like GIS analysis, Statistical analysis (Factor Analysis) the terrain condition controlling parameters of sub-watersheds had been carried out. And the groundwater favourable locations were brought out using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) method of integration by assigning weightage to different thematic layers and their classes. Then, the assessment of groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation for the year 2005 - 2015 were identified and their changes during Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon had been analysed. And an important environmental issue like Runoff should be estimated using HEC-HMS model and also determined runoff at the sub-watershed level. Then, the Quantification of soil erosion in the study area had been carried out using RUSLE method and a detailed analysis of soil priority zones at each sub-watershed level had been estimated. Finally, watershed conservation measures had been carried out on critical watersheds to minimize runoff and soil erosion.